A nursery is a set of agricultural facilities in which they are planted, germinate, mature and harden all types of plants.
In agriculture they are frequently named as nursery to commercial establishments that perform the fruit trees spreading in order to their subsequent sale to farmers.
There are three types of nurseries depending on the type of plants producing, so we can distinguish between:
- Agricultural nurseries: whose function is the production of fruit.
- Tree nurseries: which are engaged in the production of trees for reforestation or landscaping.
- Ornamental nurseries: which mainly produce plants for landscaping.
A nursery is divided into the following areas:
Usually located in a warehouse, where the seeding operation is done by hand or automated machinery. Planting may be by the use of seed or vegetative propagation, usually from branch cuttings, cuttings. It can be performed on trays or containers.
Once the seed trays or containers are moved to production greenhouses, where they are kept under suitable temperature and humidity conditions for the development of seedlings.
Areas of acclimatization
This is an area whose purpose is to prepare the seedlings for field conditions to which they will be subjected. It can be performed in the same greenhouse production or or nethouses adjacent to this. Transplation to larger containers is usually carried out at this stage to increase the root development.
The best recommended nurseries greenhouses are polytunnel type, in their variants:
- Gothic Greenhouses
- Asymmetrical or Tropical Greenhouses
- Chapel Greenhouses
Since the conditions of radiation, temperature and relative humidity must be controlled optimally to generate the best possible weather conditions for the development of plants, and these greenhouses provide the best features for this:
- Large volume of air.
- Allows mechanized farming inside.
- Good ventilation.
- High tightness.
- Allows the installation of roof ventilation and perimeter ventilation and forced ventilation facilities.
- Good lighting distribution inside the greenhouse.
Sow in trays on substrates alveoli pyramidal, conical or tubular stem, larger than those used in the seed, which facilitate handling and transplanting seedlings.
Shade and thermal screens, forced ventilation, cooling systems and fog system.
Closed systems of pipes with hot water or hot air systems. Preferably placed under trays plantation in order to raise the ambient temperature of the roots.
Irrigation travellers, sprinkler or microsprinkler systems are usually used in production greenhouses although when containers are used in production, drip irrigation systems are also used.