Tomato Growing has a climatic requirements quite high compared with other Solanaceae, so in temperate or cold climates, it is necessary production environments for their development, that’s why greenhouses are crucial for tomato growing.
The conditions for Tomato growing are:
- Daytime temperature about 20-30 °C and 15-17 °C over night
- Vegetative minimum temperature of 12 ° C and maximum 35 ° C.
- Optimum temperature for fertilization between 12 ° C and 25 ° C, from these values is defective or absent.
- Relative humidity around 60-80%.
- At critical times during the growing season, the interrelationship between day and night temperature and luminosity is crucial.
Main problems due to climate:
Favors the development of air diseases, fruit cracking and hinders fertilization, because the pollen compact, killing a part of the flowers.
With low light:
Negative influence on the process of flowering, fertilization as well as vegetative growth of the plant. Contributes to the fungi development.
Temperatures above 45 ° C are lethal, above 35 ° C affect fruiting by poor eggs development and plant development in general and the root system in particular.
They produce a disorder called "Catface" or woody blossom scar. Tomatoes with this disorder have great scars and holes in the blossom end of the fruit, plus formless. Sometimes the fruit has kidney-shaped with long scars.
Greenhouses for Tomato growing:
In tomato growing is increasingly common the use of high-tech greenhouses with hydroponic irrigation systems, usually on sacks of substrate (rockwool, coconut fiber or perlite).
Parral, and blackbone structures greenhouses were traditionally use for their production, but the introduction of new farming techniques, such as trellising at high altitudes and hydroponic systems make the building of Polytunnel Greenhouses necessary for tomato growing.
Planted on substrates, typically in rockwool, perlite or coconut fiber bags, coir sanding systems, or directly on the ground. The crop is staking, and it can reach above 2.5 m heights.
Carbon fertilization systems:
They are common in northern European countries, although this technology is increasingly used in countries of southern Europe for increasing agricultural production. These systems require tight greenhouses as polytunnel greenhouses.
thermal and shade, forced ventilation, cooling or fog system screens are used.
Closed pipes systems with hot water or hot air systems.
Drip irrigation systems are often used depending on the production system.